1*// the house

A1*// everyday life, the house

*// introduction

1:01**/ Having a house or flat of one’s own is everyman’s dream. Either you own the house you live in, or rent it from the owner to whom it belongs – your landlord or landlady.

*/ a house of one’s own

*/ a flat, an apartment

*/ to own sth

*/ the owner 

*/ to live in a house

*/ to rent from s.o.

*/ to belong to s.o.

*/ the landlord, landlady

1:02**/ Many people in the UK are housed in council flats (or houses) let to them by the town council for a moderate sum. The lease fixes the amount of rent that you, as a tenant, have to pay on quarter-day. Should you fail to do that, you run the risk of being turned out, but you will be given notice first.

*/ a council flat

*/ to rent to s.o., to let to s.o.

*/ the lease

*/ rent

*/ the tenant

*/ quarter-day

*/ to turn out s.o.

*/ to give notice

1:03**/ Potential tenants have the choice between for example furnished apartments or a room to let provided the landlord will take in lodgers (or roomers) as paying guests. When dissatisfied, a tenant can always move out to another place. Removals are now made easier thanks to specialized firms that take care of everything.

*/ furnished apartments, rooms

*/ a lodger, roomer (US)

*/ a paying-guest

*/ to stay

*/ to move out

*/ a removal

1a*// building the house

1:04**/ If you are rich enough, you can choose between a house built and buying one. In the former case, an architect is the man you need, who suggests a site if you need one and draws the plans (or designs the house) for you.

*/ to have a house built

*/ an estate agent, a realtor (US)

*/ a house for sale

*/ an architect

*/ a site

*/ to draw the plan, to design

1:05**/ In large scale building projects, the property developer asks contractors to organize and supervise the work. A yard is then opened. Formerly, workmen dug the foundations with picks and shovels. Now they use pneumatic drills, and most of the work is carried out by bulldozers, and excavators. Cement is laid in the foundations that are to support the walls.

*/ a property developer

*/ the contractor

*/ a yard

*/ a pick

*/ a shovel [šavl]

*/ to dig the foundations [faun’deišnz]

*/ pneumatic drill [nju’mætik]

*/ an excavator

*/ cement

*/ the walls

1:06**/ Builders then set about building the walls with stones or bricks joined together by mortar. As the walls go up, scaffolding is needed. The walls of tower blocks and skyscrapers (or high rises) are generally made of concrete or reinforced concrete, or steel frames fitted with laminated glass panels. To erect them, cranes are necessary. The sound of concrete mixers is typical of building sites.

*/ a builder; a stone-mason; a bricklayer

*/ stone

*/ minerals

*/ brick

*/ mortar

*/ scaffolding

*/ a tower block

*/ a skyscraper, a high rise (US)

*/ concrete [koƞkri:t]

*/ reinforced concrete [ri:in’fo:st koƞkri:t]

*/ a steel frame

*/ laminated glass

*/ a panel

*/ a crane

*/ a concrete mixer

1:07**/ Wood used for building purposes is called timber (or lumber). Carpenters make the framework of the roof with beams and rafters. Traditional roofs are covered with tiles or slates by tilers or slaters.

*/ wood

*/ timber, lumber (US)

*/ a carpenter

*/ the framework

*/ the roof

*/ a beam

*/ a rafter

*/ a tile

*/ a slate

*/ a tiler, a slater

1:08**/ The joiners have a considerable amount of work to do. They have to lay the floors and fit in the frames for doors and windows. They saw planks or boards to the required size and make them smooth by means of a plane. The shavings that fly off are handy to light fires with. Joiners use hammers to drive in nails and screwdrivers to drive in screws. They also bore holes with drills, etc.

*/ a joiner

*/ the floor

*/ a frame

*/ to saw [so:] a plank, a board

*/ a plane

*/ shavings

*/ a hammer

*/ to drive in a nail

*/ a screw [skru:]

*/ a screwdriver

*/ to bore a hole

*/ a drill

1:09**/ New houses are on the mains for their electricity supply. Plumbers install the pipes and locksmiths put in the locks. To fit the various parts, they use files and vice.

*/ to be on the mains

*/ supply

*/ a plumber

*/ a pipe [paip]

*/ a locksmith

*/ a lock

*/ to fit

*/ a file [fail]

*/ a vice [vais]

1:10**/ Now, it is the plasterers’ turn to plaster the inside of the walls. These may later on be painted or whitewashed. The painter mixes his paint in a pail (or bucket) then lays it on with brushes. He has to stand on a ladder to reach high enough.

*/ to plaster

*/ to paint

*/ to whitewash

*/ a painter

*/ paint

*/ a pail, a bucket

*/ a brush

*/ a ladder [lædә]

1:11**/ The walls can also be papered. Then, glaziers put in the window-panes while electricians install the electrical wiring and sockets all over the house. After which, redecorating may become necessary.

*/ to paper

*/ a glazier [gleiziә]

*/ a window-pane

*/ an electrician

*/ the electrical wiring [waiәriƞ]

*/ a socket

*/ to redecorate [ri:dekәreit]

1:12**/ Then a furniture dealer will supply the indispensable furniture before you settle (or move in). Now at last you can have your friends for the house-warming party.

*/ a furniture dealer

*/ furniture

*/ to settle

*/ to move in

*/ a house-warming party

1b*// outside and inside

1:13**/ Outside, an ordinary English house looks very much like the other houses in the street. Suburban houses enjoy a small front garden and a bigger fenced in back garden. More and more have a garage to one side. Most French houses have cellars; many central London houses have kept rooms in the basement overlooking a small area enclosed by railings at the front.

*/ a fence

*/ fenced in

*/ the front garden

*/ the back garden

*/ the garden

*/ a garage [gæra:ž, gә’ra:ž (US)]

*/ the cellar

*/ the basement [beismәnt]

*/ an area [eәriә]

*/ a railing

1:14**/ The space under the roof, or loft is called attic or garret when lit by windows. Above the roof rise the chimney-pots, and the television aerial.

*/ a loft

*/ an attic, a garret

*/ a chimney-pot

*/ an aerial [eәriәl]

1:15**/ A house consists of several rooms, divided by partitions. In modern flats, rooms tend to be small or even tiny, with low ceilings and those living in them are cramped for space, while fine Victorian houses had large and roomy dining and sitting rooms with high ceilings.

*/ a room

*/ a partition [pa:’tišn]

*/ small

*/ tiny [taini]

*/ the ceiling [si:liƞ]

*/ low

*/ to be cramped

*/ large

*/ roomy, commodious

*/ high [hai]

1:16**/ Light rooms with wide windows – especially bow-windows – are pleasant to work in, which cannot be said of dark or dimly lit rooms with windows opening (or looking) on to narrow, gloomy streets.

*/ a window

*/ a bow-window [bәu]

*/ to look, to open on to

*/ light

*/ dimly lit

*/ dark

*/ gloomy

1:17**/ Many people like to decorate their window-sills with flowers in window-boxes. English houses have no shutters. Blinds (shades (US)) or curtains are drawn instead. Don’t leave several doors and windows open, or simply ajar, or there will be a draught and the doors will slam. Most English windows, however, cannot slam because they are sash-windows which slide up and down. Modern houses are fitted with French windows opening to the garden, which is very convenient.

*/ the window-sill

*/ a shutter

*/ a blind, a shade (US)

*/ a door

*/ ajar [ә’dža: ͬ]

*/ a draught [dra:ft], draft (US)

*/ to slam [slæm]

*/ a sash-window

*/ to slide [slaid]

*/ convenient [kәn’vi:niәnt]

*/ a French window

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