2*// home life

A2*// everyday life, home life

2a*// visitors

2:01**/ When a visitor comes to pay a call on Mr Smith, he first pushes the garden gate open, then walks up to the front door, stands on the doorstep and rings the bell or knocks with the door-knocker.

*/ to pay a call, to call on s.o.

*/ to look s.o. up

*/ the gate

*/ the front-door

*/ the doorstep

*/ the threshold

*/ to ring the bell

*/ to knock [nok]

*/ the knocker [nokә]

2:02**/ Whenever Mr. Smith leaves his house, he makes sure he locks the house up properly. When he returns home, he slips the key into the keyhole and unlocks the door, then presses the doorhandle or turns the doorknob and walks in. For safety reasons houses are now equipped with burglar alarm and doors can be bolted from the inside.

*/ to lock the house up

*/ a key [ki:]

*/ the keyhole

*/ to unlock sth

*/ a door handle

*/ a doorknob [do:nob]

*/ a burglar alarm

*/ to bolt

2:03**/ Once inside, the visitor finds himself in the hall, from which stairs (the stairway, US) lead up to the top floor. In many modern houses, the hall is just a passage. Tower blocks are equipped with lifts or elevators.

*/ the hall

*/ a passage

*/ a lift, an elevator (US)

*/ the staircase [steәkeis], the stairs, the stairway (US)

2:04**/ If Mr. Smith lives in a big house, the visitor will be shown into the parlour. The standard English house has a sitting-room or lounge where family life takes place – hence its other name: the living room. Victorian drawing-room (into which the ladies withdrew) are found in great mansions only.

*/ to show s.o. into

*/ the parlour [pa:lә]

*/ the sitting-room, the lounge [au], the living-room

2:05**/ When Mr. Smith greets a friend he does not shake hands with him; handshaking is largely a continental fashion. He will say: “How are you? Come in and make yourself comfortable.” And indeed, the sitting room is comfortable with its two armchairs and a deep settee or sofa with its soft cushions. Convertible sofas afford sleeping accommodation for extra guests.

*/ to greet s.o.

*/ to shake hands with s.o.

*/ a handshake

*/ comfortable

*/ an armchair

*/ a settee, a couch [kautš] (US)

*/ a sofa [sәufә]

*/ a convertible sofa, a day bed (US)

2:06**/ The room is snug and cosy. A deep carpet covers the floor. Nowadays fitted carpets are the latest word in comfort. Massive Victorian hangings have fallen into disfavour; curtains hanging in front of the windows make the rooms private. Modern furniture is generally plain (or simple) in contrast with the ornate 19th century styles.

*/ snug, cosy [kәuzi]

*/ a carpet, a rug

*/ a fitted carpet, wall-to-wall carpeting

*/ hangings

*/ a curtain [kœ:tn]

*/ plain, simple

*/ ornate [o:’neit]

2b*// the dining-room and the kitchen

2:07**/ The dining-room, where the family have their meals, is furnished with a dining-room suite: a table, chairs, a sideboard; the dinner things are kept inside sideboards in drawers and on shelves.

*/ the dining-room [dainiƞrum]

*/ the dining-room suite [swi:t]

*/ a table

*/ a chair

*/ a sideboard

*/ a cupboard [kabәd]

*/ a drawer [dro: ͬ]

*/ a shelf, shelves (pl.)

*/ to lay, to set the table

2:08**/ The kitchen is the room where the cooking is done. Now gas and electric cookers (or stoves or ranges) are in common use. They are so much more convenient, as you need only turn the gas or electricity on or off, up or down. Ovens come in handy to roast meat and microwave ovens to warm up drinks and frozen foods.

*/ the kitchen

*/ cooking

*/ a cooker (UK), a stove, a range (US)

*/ convenient [kәn’vi:niәnt]

*/ to turn on, off

*/ to turn up, down

*/ an oven [avn]

*/ a microwave oven [maikrәweiv]

2:09**/ The traditional cooking utensils, such as saucepans, frying-pans, have been supplemented by all kinds of labour-saving electrical devices (or gadgets), such as coffee machines and tin-openers. In England, there is always a kettle at hand to boil water and make some tea.

*/ cooking utensils [ju’tenslz]

*/ a saucepan

*/ a frying-pan

*/ a pressure-cooker

*/ a device [di’vais], gadget

*/ a coffee-machine

*/ a tin-opener

*/ a kettle

2:10**/ Almost every house now has a refrigerator, commonly called fridge, where food is preserved fresh and ice cubes can be made. Freezer compartments and deep freezes are a further development. The washing up is done in the kitchen sink. More and more households have bought dishwashers to dispense with washing up by hand. The kitchen refuse goes into the dustbin (trashcan, US), or if you live in a modern flat, down the rubbish chute.

*/ a refrigerator, a fridge (UK)

*/ an ice cube

*/ a freezer compartment

*/ a deep freeze

*/ to do the washing up, to wash up

*/ a sink

*/ a dishwasher

*/ a refuse [refju:s] (sg.), rubbish (sg.), garbage (sg., US)

*/ the dustbin, the trashcan (US)

*/ a rubbish chute [šu:t]

2:11**/ Formerly washing used to be done in wash-tubs in the wash-house and the linen was wrung by hand. Now electric washing-machines work with hardly any supervision. After drying in a spin drier, the linen is ironed with an electric iron on an ironing board.

*/ a wash-tub

*/ the wash-house

*/ to wring [riƞ]

*/ a washing-machine

*/ a spin-drier

*/ to iron [aiәn], to press

*/ an iron [aiәn]

2c*// the bedrooms

2:12**/ After visiting the rooms downstairs (or on the ground floor, UK; or first floor, US), let us now go upstairs (up one flight of stairs). First we come to the landing on which the first floor rooms (second floor rooms, US) open.

*/ the ground floor (first floor, US)

*/ downstairs

*/ upstairs

*/ to go up one flight of stairs

*/ the steps

*/ the landing

*/ a bedroom

*/ a box-room

*/ a guest room

*/ the first floor, second floor (US)

2:13**/ The bedroom suite generally includes a bed, a wardrobe, a chest of drawers, one or two bedside tables, a dressing table (dresser, US) and a stool to sit on. Modern houses have built-in cupboards or closets.

*/ a bed

*/ a wardrobe

*/ a chest of drawers [tšest әv dro:z]

*/ a bedside table

*/ a dressing table, a dresser (US)

*/ a stool

*/ a closet [klozit]

*/ built-in

2:14**/ The framework of the bed or bedstead supports a mattress and then one or two blankets on the sheets. Finally, you cover the bed with a bedspread (or a quilt), after placing the bolster or pillows in their cases at the head of the bed.

*/ the bedstead

*/ a mattress

*/ to make a bed

*/ a sheet

*/ a blanket

*/ a bedspread

*/ a quilt

*/ a pillow

*/ a bolster

*/ a pillow-case

2:15**/ When it is bedtime, all good children must go to bed. Fred is not the last to go: he feels so sleepy after the day’s work! Sometimes he dozes off in his chair. Grandfather has already gone to sleep in his arm-chair and now he is snoring. When Fred lies down, his younger brother who shares his bedroom is already slumbering, or sleeping peacefully.

*/ bedtime

*/ to feel sleepy

*/ to doze off, to snooze

*/ to go to sleep

*/ to snore

*/ to lie down

*/ to slumber

*/ to sleep

2:16**/ In ten minutes Fred will be fast asleep in his turn. He will perhaps dream that he has just scored a goal for the school, unless he has the awful dream (or nightmare) that he is scoring against his own team! On a hot afternoon when you feel drowsy, a short nap will do you good. Last night, Tom had so bad a toothache he could not get a wink of sleep.

*/ fast asleep

*/ to dream

*/ a dream

*/ a nightmare

*/ drowsy

*/ a nap [æ]

*/ he could not sleep a wink

2:17**/ On weekdays Paul sets his clock-radio or alarm-clock for seven. When it rings, he awakes (or wakes up) with a start and jumps out of bed. On Sundays, Paul who is not an early riser has a lie in. He has plenty of time to yawn, rub his eyes, and stretch (himself). When he gets up at last, he is wide awake.

*/ a clock-radio

*/ an alarm-clock

*/ to awake, to wake up (with a start)

*/ to be an early riser

*/ to have a lie in

*/ to yawn

*/ to rub (sth)

*/ to stretch (oneself)

*/ to get up

*/ wide awake

2d*// the bathroom

2:18**/ On summer mornings, Paul raises the blind and flings open the window to let in the fresh air, then goes to the bathroom. Modern English bathrooms are fitted with a toilet, with a roll of toilet paper hanging at hand next to the toilet-bowl (to be flushed regularly after use).

*/ to raise

*/ to fling open

*/ the bathroom

*/ the toilet [toilәt]

*/ toilet paper

*/ the toilet bowl

*/ to flush the toilet

2:19**/ The walls and floor of the bathroom are tiled. Modern houses have a built-in bath or shower (sometimes both). When Paul wants to take a bath or shower, he finds everything ready: a sponge, a bar (or cake) of soap, in the soap dish, a dry towel spread out on the towel rail for a good rub-down afterwards on the bathmat. Now he just has to turn on the taps and run his bath. Then he will rub himself dry.

*/ a tile [ai]

*/ tiled [ai]

*/ a bath [ba:θ]

*/ a shower [šauә]

*/ to have, to take a bath

*/ to have, to take a shower

*/ a sponge [spandž]

*/ a bar, a cake of soap

*/ the soap dish

*/ a towel [au]

*/ the towel rail

*/ a rub-down

*/ the taps, the faucets (US)

*/ a bathmat

*/ to run a bath

*/ to rub oneself dry

2:20**/ On school-days Paul has no time to take a bath. He washes his face and hands at the wash-basin, then wipes (or dries) them with a towel. Next he takes his comb and brush from his toilet case to comb and brush his hair. A girl will spend more time in front of the mirror (or looking glass), doing her hair and making up.

*/ to wash [woš]

*/ the washbasin [wošbeisn]

*/ to wipe [ai], to dry

*/ a comb [kәum]

*/ to comb one’s hair

*/ a hairbrush

*/ to brush

*/ a sponge bag, a toilet-case [keis]

*/ the mirror, the looking-glass

*/ to do one’s hair

*/ to make up, to make up one’s face

2:21**/ Finally Paul spreads some toothpaste on his toothbrush to clean his teeth. Unless they wear beards, men must shave. To do so, they use safety razors or electric shavers.

*/ toothpaste [tu:θpeist]

*/ a toothbrush

*/ to clean one’s teeth

*/ to shave

*/ a safety razor [reizә]

*/ an electric shaver

2:22**/ In the homes of substantial people, you are likely to find a study with a writing-desk, a library with books in bookcases or on shelves along the walls. The nursery, fitted with a cot and a playpen, is reserved for the children, who sometimes have to be rocked to sleep or sung lullabies to.

*/ substantial

*/ the study [stadi]

*/ a writing-desk

*/ the library [laibrәri]

*/ a bookcase [‘buk,keis]

*/ the nursery

*/ a cot

*/ a playpen

*/ to rock

*/ a lullaby [lalәbai]

2e*// heating

2:23**/ In a country like Great Britain heating is very important. Central heating and radiators are relatively recent fixtures. For a long time, the only means of heating was a grate in the hearth or fireplace. In towns, the only fuel used was coal. In the countryside, there would be a wood fire.

*/ central heating

*/ a radiator [reidieitә]

*/ a grate [greit]

*/ the fireplace

*/ the hearth [ha:θ]

*/ a fuel [fju:әl]

*/ coal

2:24**/ What drudgery! You have to bring in logs, make sure the fireguard was there all right, light the fire every morning, strike several matches perhaps and blow bellows hard, feed and poke the fire, put it out before going to bed and collect the ashes. The poker, tongs, fire brush and shovel hang on a special rack.

*/ a log

*/ a fireguard

*/ to light a fire

*/ to strike a match

*/ the bellows (pl.)

*/ to poke

*/ to put out

*/ ashes

*/ a poker

*/ tongs

*/ a shovel [šavl]

2:25**/ Besides smoke was sometimes a nuisance, embers and sparks might be a danger to the hearth-rug and the chimney had to be swept (i.e., cleared of soot) at regular intervals.

*/ smoke

*/ embers

*/ a spark

*/ the hearth-rug [ha:θrag]

*/ the chimney

*/ to sweep

*/ soot [sut]

2:26**/ Nowadays electric heaters, gas fires and oil stoves are so much simple to run! But the traditional fireplace is still the centre of family life. And where would the Englishman display his Christmas cards if there was no longer a mantelpiece for that purpose? However, in all modern flats, the housewife has hot water handy from the hot-water tank, heated by the boiler. Fuel oil is stored in big tanks.

*/ an electric heater

*/ a gas fire

*/ an oil stove

*/ the fireplace

*/ the mantelpiece

*/ a hot-water tank

*/ a boiler

*/ fuel oil

*/ a tank

2f*// lighting

2:27**/ Great progress has also been made in lighting thanks to electrical power. Candles stuck in candlesticks or chandeliers, oil lamps and later gas lamps have now been superseded by electric light, but candles still come in handy in case of power cuts.

*/ power

*/ a candle

*/ a candlestick

*/ a chandelier [,šændә’liә]

*/ an oil lamp

*/ a gas lamp

*/ electric light

*/ a power cut

2:28**/ When gone, bulbs have to be replaced. Insert or screw the bulb into the socket then switch on the light to see if it works. English sockets are all equipped with safety switches which enable you to switch off reading-lamps or other domestic appliances conveniently. Beware of plugging in too many of those (or putting in too many plugs) at the same time in the adaptors or you are sure to blow a fuse! Neon lights provide bright lighting for kitchens and offices.

*/ the bulb is gone

*/ a socket

*/ to switch on, off

*/ a switch

*/ a reading-lamp

*/ domestic appliances [ә’plaiәnsiz]

*/ a plug

*/ to plug in sth

*/ an adaptor

*/ to blow a fuse

*/ a neon light [‘ni:on,lait]

2g*// housekeeping, housework

2:29**/ Vacuuming and polishing are now quickly done with vacuum-cleaners and polishers which work on the mains. But these have not ousted housewife’s traditional tools: brooms, mops, dusters, carpet-sweepers. Sweeping floors and carpets, dusting the furniture, scrubbing the doorstep and polishing the brass keep the housewife busy.

*/ to vacuum, to hoover

*/ a vacuum-cleaner

*/ a polisher

*/ the mains (pl.)

*/ a broom

*/ a mop

*/ a duster

*/ a carpet-sweeper

*/ to sweep

*/ to dust

*/ to scrub

*/ to polish the brass

2:30**/ She is proud to keep the house clean and tidy. But having everything spick and span is no easy task when the children are untidy and leave things lying around, or forget to wipe their feet and leave muddy footprints everywhere, not to mention dog! The rooms have to be done regularly. Once a year, the good housewife was supposed to clean her house thoroughly when the fine season came, which was called the great spring-cleaning.

*/ clean

*/ tidy [taidi]

*/ spick and span

*/ untidy [an’taidi]

*/ to leave things lying around

*/ muddy footprints

*/ to do a room

*/ spring-cleaning

2h*// proverbs and sayings

1*/ There is no place like home.

=> Všade dobre, doma najlepšie.

2*/ An Englishman’s house is his castle.

=> Môj dom, môj hrad.

3*/ Be it ever so humble there’s no place like home.

=> Pre každého vtáka je jeho vlastné hniezdo najkrajšie.

4*/ Charity begins at home.

=> Najskôr rodina, potom ostatní.

5*/ Those who live in glass houses should not throw stones.

=> Kto je bez viny, nech hodí kameňom.

6*/ As you make your bed so you must lie on it.

=> Ako si ustelieš, tak sa vyspíš.

7*/ It is best to wash one’s soiled linen at home.

=> Domáca bielizeň sa neperie na verejnosti.

8*/ A door must be either open or shut.

=> Dvere majú byť otvorené alebo zavreté.

9*/ A hungry man, an angry man.

=> Hladný človek je nahnevaný človek.

10*/ Hunger is the best sauce.

=> Hlad je najlepšie korenie.

11*/ Half a loaf is better than no bread.

=> Keď neprší, aspoň kvapká.

12*/ The proof of the pudding is in the eating.

=> Kvalitu ukáže zub času.

13*/ There’s many a slip twixt the cup and the lip.

=> Od pohárika k ústam je krátka cesta.

14**/ Home, sweet home!

Early to bed and early to rise

Makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise.

Vložiť komentár