3*// the family

A3*// everyday life, the family

*// introduction

3:01**/ Have you met the two families next door? Parents with an only child on the ground floor, and a large family – father and mother with 8 children (5 brothers and 3 sisters) and one to be born soon – on the first floor. What a household! In rural civilisations, the family also included grandparents, uncles and aunts. By contrast, the nuclear family of today’s urban civilisation is reduced to the parents and children.

*/ a child [tšaild]

*/ children [tšildrәn] (pl.)

*/ to be born

*/ father [fa:δә]

*/ mother [maδә]

*/ parents [peәrәnts]

*/ a brother [braδә]

*/ a sister

*/ sibling [sibliƞ]

*/ a step sister, half sister

*/ large

*/ the household

*/ grandparents [‘grænd,peәrәnts]

*/ grandad (UK), granddad (US)

*/ granny

*/ an uncle

*/ an aunt [a:nt]

*/ the nuclear family

*/ the extended family

*/ plan to start a family

*/ surname (UK), family name (US), last name (US)

*/ forename (UK), first name (US)

*/ middle name

3:02**/ Great family occasions enable one to meet one’s more distant relatives: nephews, nieces, boy-cousins and girl-cousins (first, second, third cousins…). Families grow by marriage; one’s husband’s or wife’s father and mother are one’s father-in-law and mother-in-law (one’s in-laws).

*/ relatives, relations [‘relәtiv, ri’leišәn]

*/ a relative, a relation

*/ we are related

*/ a nephew [‘nefju:]

*/ a cousin [‘kazn]

*/ a first cousin

*/ a second cousin

*/ a distant cousin

*/ a niece [ni:s]

*/ the husband

*/ the wife, wives (pl.)

*/ a blended family

*/ remote ancestor [‘ænsestәz]

*/ family tree

*/ an orphanage [‘o:fәnidž]

*/ paternity shown by DNA test

*/ a partner

*/ they are a good match

*/ break-up

*/ marry into money

*/ unconsummated marriage [mæridž]

*/ a dowry [‘dauәri]

*/ come into money, inherit money from s.o.

*/ the father-in-law

*/ the mother-in-law

*/ the in-laws [‘inlo:z]

3:03**/ King Priam is said to have had 50 sons and 50 daughters! Hamlet could never approve of his stepfather – his own uncle who had married his widowed mother. Children who have the misfortune of becoming orphans are committed to the charge of a guardian, whose ward they thus become.

*/ a son [san]

*/ a daughter [do:tә]

*/ the stepfather

*/ the stepmother

*/ by marriage

*/ an orphan

*/ a guardian [‘ga:diәn]

*/ a ward [wo:d]

*/ bequest property to s.o.

*/ foster a child into one’s home

*/ foster a child out to a foster-home, put a child in foster-care

*/ foster parent

3:04**/ Women’s life expectation being longer than men’s, there are more widows than widowers about. Most young people remain single till a later age than previously. Surprisingly, in English, bachelor does not have the same pejorative ring as spinster, or even worse old maid. The number of single-parent families is on the increase as more mothers decide to remain single.

*/ life expectation

*/ a widower

*/ a widow

*/ single

*/ a spinster, an old maid

*/ a single-parent / a one-parent family

*/ a bachelor

*/ she comes from a broken home

*/ a close / close-knit family [,klәus’nit]

*/ family ties

*/ family relationships

*/ have fights

*/ separate / split (up) [‘sepәrәt]

*/ we’re very close

*/ get (sole) custody of the children

*/ award joint custody

*/ obtain visiting rights

*/ a stag party

*/ a hen party

3:05**/ Mrs. Harris has decided to remain a housewife as she prefers to look after her family and home than go out to work. Her husband is older than she is by two years. Her elder sister, who is not married, comes to help her with the family once in a while. Jane is the eldest of her three children; the younger ones are twins, and Jane is delighted whenever she is allowed to push their pram or pushchair around.

*/ a housewife

*/ older

*/ the elder

*/ the eldest

*/ twins

*/ a pram, a baby carriage (US)

*/ a pushchair

*/ a baby sling, a baby carrier

3a*// upbringing

3:06**/ A housewife’s job is never finished: she must attend to her household duties, look after the children, watch over their upbringing. Parents should be careful to bring up their children well. Well-bred (or well-behaved) children are a credit to their parents. Many unfortunately seem ill-bred or ill-mannered.

*/ to attend to sth

*/ to look after s.o.

*/ to watch over sth

*/ to bring up children

*/ well-bred, well-behaved

*/ ill-bred, ill-mannered

3:07**/ Some parents are very kind, even lenient to their children. A fond mother pets and even spoils them. Others on the contrary are very strict (or severe): they never fail to scold (or chide) their children whenever they feel they ought to. Mr Murdstone was very harsh to David Copperfield and would punish him for mere trifles.

*/ kind [kaind]

*/ lenient [‘li:niәnt]

*/ fond

*/ to pet

*/ to spoil

*/ strict, severe [si’viә]

*/ to scold, to chide

*/ harsh

*/ to punish

3:08**/ Well-bred children are good, polite, obedient (they obey their parents) and quiet. Ill-bred are naughty, rude, disobedient (they disobey orders) and boisterous.

*/ good

*/ polite [pә’lait]

*/ obedient [ә’bi:diәnt]

*/ to obey s.o.

*/ quiet [‘kwaiәt]

*/ naughty [no:ti]

*/ rude [ru:d]

*/ disobedient

*/ to disobey s.o. / an order

*/ boisterous [boistrәs]

3:09**/ Children love and honour their dear and loving parents. Jane never forgets to kiss her mum (or mummy) dad (or daddy) goodnight before going to bed. Good children are easily forgiven what little mischief they may get into.

*/ to love [lav]

*/ to honour [‘onә]

*/ dear

*/ loving

*/ to kiss

*/ dad, daddy

*/ mum, mummy

*/ to forgive (s.o.)

*/ mischief [‘mistšif]

3b*// servants

3:10**/ Nowadays, very few English housewives can afford the luxury of a maidservant (or maid). They must be content with the services of a charwoman (or a char), now called a daily (help) or cleaning woman. In days gone by, the homes of the wealthy could not be run without a large number of servants: a cook, a porter, a coachman, several footmen and housemaids.

*/ a maid (servant)

*/ a cleaning woman, a char (woman), a daily (help)

*/ a cook

*/ a porter

*/ a coachman

*/ a footman

*/ a housemaid

3:11**/ There was a steward or a housekeeper to supervise the other servants, a butler to look after the service. There were also tutors and governesses who took over the children’s upbringing, and a nurse (or nanny) to look after the babies.

*/ the steward [‘stju:әd]

*/ the housekeeper

*/ the butler

*/ a tutor [‘tju:tә]

*/ a governess

*/ a nurse, a nanny

3:12**/ All these servants were freely engaged (or hired) and easily dismissed if they proved unfaithful and dishonest. Nowadays, you are to give servants a month’s notice if you are dissatisfied with them.

*/ to engage, to hire s.o.

*/ to dismiss s.o.

*/ unfaithful

*/ dishonest [dis’onist]

*/ to give notice

3c*// friends

3:13**/ Being an outgoing person, you of course have a large number of friends and acquaintances. Among them, some will just remain casual acquaintances. As a boy, you may well take a fancy to one of the girls. With others, you will strike a friendship, no difficult task with friendly, likeable (or nice) people. Unfriendly neighbours you just have a nodding acquaintance with, and unpleasant people you just ignore.

*/ outgoing

*/ an acquaintance

*/ a casual acquaintance

*/ to take a fancy to s.o.

*/ to strike up a friendship, to make friends (with s.o.)

*/ to be on friendly terms with s.o.

*/ friendly, likeable, nice

*/ unfriendly

*/ to have a nodding acquaintance with s.o.

*/ unpleasant

3:14**/Mr Smith is giving a party / entertaining tonight. A friendly host he makes a point of greetings his guests with a hearty welcome, (or welcoming them) and introducing all strangers to each other. At formal parties, gentlemen bow to the ladies. Young people favour informal parties, where nobody is expected to stand on ceremony and in next to no time, they will be hugging each other.

*/ to entertain, to give a party

*/ the host

*/ the hostess

*/ a guest [gest]

*/ a hearty, a warm welcome [ha:ti]

*/ to welcome s.o.

*/ to greet

*/ to introduce to s.o.

*/ to bow to s.o. [bau]

*/ informal

*/ to stand on ceremony

*/ to hug s.o.

3d*// family gatherings

3:15**/ Births are joyful occasions for family gatherings. When the last stage of pregnancy comes, women who expect babies (or expectant mothers) most often go to nursing homes where doctors and competent midwives will help them have their babies. Couples who are unable to have babies of their own now sometimes have recourse to surrogate mothers. In industrialized countries, the birth rate has stabilized.

*/ birth [bœ:θ]

*/ to be with child, to expect a baby

*/ to be pregnant

*/ an expectant mother

*/ pregnancy [‘pregnәnsi]

*/ the maternity wing / ward

*/ a midwife, midwives (pl.)

*/ to have a baby

*/ a surrogate mother

*/ the birth rate

3:16**/ The child bears its father’s or mother’s name (or surname). When it is christened (or baptized) it is given a Christian name (first name, US). Two relatives or friends of the family stand as godfather and godmother to the child, who is their godchild (godson or goddaughter). Some persons may be given nicknames, in derision or affection.

*/ name

*/ surname, last name

*/ to christen, to baptize [‘krisn, bæp’taiz]

*/ the Christian name, the first name (US)

*/ to stand godfather

*/ to stand godmother

*/ the godchild

*/ a nickname

3:17**/ In the past, a young man falling in love with a young lady would formally court or woo her. Now, things are simpler, but it is still usually the boy who proposes to the girl. If she agrees, they will become engaged. The fiancé and the fiancée receive presents.

*/ to fall in love with s.o.

*/ to court, to woo [wu:]

*/ to propose to s.o.

*/ to become engaged

*/ the fiancé

*/ the fiancée

3:18**/ Marriage is a serious affair. The wedding is a great occasion for rejoicing. In the past, sons of well-to-do families were supposed to be good matches for the young ladies they married. Now, young people marry for love (or make love matches).

*/ marriage [‘mæridž]

*/ the wedding

*/ a match

*/ to marry s.o.

*/ to marry

*/ a love-match

3:19**/ In the U.K., people normally get married in church. If they want, they can have a mere registry office wedding. The bride-to-be, dressed in white, is attended by her bridesmaids while the best man is in charge of the wedding rings. After exchanging the ritual “I will” and the rings, the bride and groom and the guests attend the wedding breakfast.

*/ to get married (to s.o.)

*/ a registry office wedding

*/ the bride-to-be

*/ bridesmaids

*/ the best man

*/ a wedding-ring

*/ the bride [braid]

*/ the (bride)groom

*/ the wedding breakfast

3:20**/ After the wedding, the newly-married pair (the newly-weds) leave on their honeymoon. Wedding anniversaries are an occasion for sending greeting cards and good wishes. Some matches may end badly: divorce is on the increase; husband and wife get divorced (or divorce each other); the husband (or the wife) gets (or obtains) a divorce. The wife is usually awarded alimony. The saddest occasion is when a member of the family dies and the family go into mourning and meet for the funeral.

*/ the newly-married couple, the newly-weds (fam.)

*/ honeymoon

*/ a greeting-card

*/ good wishes

*/ a match

*/ to divorce s.o.

*/ to get divorced

*/ a divorce

*/ alimony

*/ a funeral

*/ go into mourning

3e*// proverbs and sayings

1*/ Like father, like son.

=> Aký otec, taký syn. / Jablko nepadá ďaleko od stromu.

2*/ Marry in haste, repent at leisure.

=> Kto sa rýchlo zosobáši, vo voľnom čase sa kaje.

3*/ Spare the rod and spoil the child.

=> Kto vie ľúbiť, vie aj trestať.

4*/ A friend in need is a friend indeed.

=> V núdzi spoznáš priateľa.

5*/ The more, the merrier.

=> Blázni sa najviac smejú.

3f*// the lighter side

1*/ Legally, the husband is head of the household and the pedestrian has the right of way. Both are safe as long as they don’t try to exercise their rights.

2*/ “My husband and I argued for a whole hour last night,” said a wife to her neighbour, “and do you know he didn’t say a word the whole time.”

3*/ Mother gave Father a tie for his birthday. “I wonder what would go best with it,” she said. Father blinked at the tie and said: “A long beard.”

4*/ Absent-minded professor’s wife: “Darling, I’ll bet you’ve forgotten that 25 years ago today we became engaged.” Absent-minded professor: “Oh, no, I remember it well. By the way, what have you been doing since?”

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