6*// schools – education

A6*// everyday life, schools – education

*// introduction

6:01**/ School attendance is compulsory for all British children between the ages of 5 and 16. Children first attend nursery school (or independent kindergarten) before going on to primary school (grade school, US), passing first through infant school from 5 to 7, then through junior school from 7 to 11 (or 13).

*/ school attendance

*/ compulsory

*/ to attend school

*/ nursery school, kindergarten (US)

*/ primary [praimәri] school, grade school (US)

*/ infant school

*/ junior school

6:02**/ Then they go to a secondary school: in the U.S., to junior, then senior high school; in the U.K., to comprehensive school (in some very few cases, to separate grammar or secondary modern schools) from 11 to 16; then tertiary or sixth-form colleges from 16-18. British pupils move from the first to the sixth form, American students move from first to 12th grade. British students take an examination called General Certificate of Secondary Education (G.C.S.E.) in two years (“O” levels and “A” levels) at the end of their secondary studies. The public school system is free in the U.K., but many parents choose to send their children to private or independent schools. The most famous are called Public Schools – e.g. Eton, Harrow, Rugby – and are much sought-after despite the several thousand pounds’ tuition fees they charge.

*/ secondary school, high school (US)

*/ a comprehensive school

*/ a grammar school

*/ a secondary modern

*/ First form

*/ Sixth form, twelfth grade (US)

*/ a form

*/ an examination, an exam (fam.)

*/ private [‘praivәt], independent

*/ a Public School (UK)

*/ tuition fees

6:03**/ Schoolboys used to go only to boys’ schools and girls to girls’ schools, but many schools are now coeducational. The staff includes a number of schoolmasters and schoolmistresses. At their head is the headmaster or headmistress (familiarly the Head).

*/ a schoolboy

*/ a schoolgirl

*/ a boys’ school

*/ a girls’ school

*/ coeducational

*/ the pupils, students (US)

*/ the staff

*/ a schoolmaster

*/ a schoolmistress

*/ the headmaster

*/ the headmistress

6:04**/ Gowns are worn by academics on formal occasions. Public Schools are boarding schools, and their pupils are boarders. Most schools only have day pupils. A former pupil of a school – an old boy (or an old girl) – will always be pleased to meet an old schoolfellow or school chum (or pal) of his – or a friend of hers.

*/ a teacher

*/ a gown [gaun]

*/ a boarding school

*/ a boarder

*/ a day-pupil

*/ an old boy / girl alumnus

*/ a schoolfellow

*/ a school chum, a pal

6a*// the classroom

6:05**/ Classes are held in specifically designed classrooms which accommodate the master’s desk and pupils’ tables and chairs (forms, in the past). A form can also mean a class, e.g. the youngest children are in the first form. The teacher will write the lessons on the blackboard with a piece of chalk, then wipe it clean with a duster or sponge. Modern appliances such as tape-recorders, radios, slide and overhead projectors are in constant use.

*/ a class

*/ the desk

*/ a form

*/ a form, grade (US)

*/ the blackboard

*/ chalk

*/ to wipe

*/ a duster

*/ a sponge [spandž]

*/ a slide projector

*/ an overhead projector

6:06**/ The walls are decorated with pictures and maps. Books and textbooks are kept in bookcases. Formerly young children used to learn to write with pens they dipped into inkpots. If they made a blot of ink on a sheet of paper, they would blot it with a piece of blotting-paper. Now we use fountain pens, ball-point pens, biros or felt-tips, or plain pencils.

*/ a map

*/ a textbook

*/ a bookcase [‘buk,keis]

*/ a pen

*/ an inkpot

*/ a blot of ink

*/ to blot

*/ blotting-paper

*/ a fountain pen

*/ a ball-point pen

*/ a biro [‘bairәu]

*/ a felt-tip (pen)

*/ a pencil

6:07**/ A 240-page book is made up of 120 sheets of paper bound by a cardboard cover. If a sheet has been torn off, you can always paste it back in with paste or glue. Pupils write down lessons and exercises in their copy/books and exercise books, and jot down the new words they have looked up in their dictionaries in notebooks.

*/ paper [‘peipә]

*/ the cover [‘kavә]

*/ cardboard

*/ a page [peidž]

*/ a sheet

*/ paste [peist], glue

*/ to paste

*/ a copybook

*/ an exercise [‘eksәsaiz] book

*/ a notebook

*/ to look up a word in the dictionary

*/ to jot down sth

6:08**/ Rulers come in handy to draw lines and compasses to draw circles, while rubbers (erasers) are indispensable to rub out (erase) pencil or ink marks. They are kept with pens in a (pen) case. Pupils now have brightly coloured bags or satchels to carry their school things about.

*/ a ruler

*/ (a pair of) compasses

*/ a rubber, an eraser

*/ to rub out, erase

*/ a case [keis]

*/ a satchel, a bag

6:09**/ When children come to school, they hang their coats on pegs in the cloakroom. The lessons, or periods, last 40 to 50 minutes. There is a morning break of 15 minutes. Most of the pupils have their midday meals in school in the dining hall (or refectory). Games are played in the playground and on the school playing fields. A modern school is also provided with a full-equipped gymnasium, where all pupils except those excused go to do gymnastics, and up-to-date science labs (or laboratories).

*/ a peg

*/ the cloakroom

*/ school uniforms

*/ a period [‘piәriәd]

*/ the break

*/ the dining hall [‘dainiƞ,ho:l], the refectory

*/ the playground

*/ the playing field(s)

*/ a gym, a gymnasium [džim’neiziәm]

*/ gymnastics (pl.)

*/ a lab, a laboratory [lә’borәtәri] (kapitola 50/2)

6b*// school work

6:10**/ The school year is divided into three terms: the Christmas term, the Easter term and the Summer term, each divided by a half-term (holiday). School breaks up at the end of July, and the summer holidays begin. At universities, or in the U.S., they are called the vacation.

*/ a term [tœ:m]

*/ half-term [‘ha:f,tœ:m]

*/ school breaks up

*/ the summer holidays, vacation

6:11**/ In an English primary school the head teacher is responsible for arranging the curriculum (or syllabus) and timetable. The subjects taught are essentially the three R’s, i.e. reading, writing, arithmetic. Masters explain to the young children the use of their mother tongue. They show them the meaning of new words (what new words mean).

*/ curriculum, syllabus

*/ the timetable

*/ to teach a subject

*/ reading

*/ writing [‘raitiƞ]

*/ arithmetic [ә’riθmәtik]

*/ to explain sth

*/ to mean

*/ meaning

6:12**/ Masters question them, ask them questions (or put questions to them), which they must answer (or to which they must reply) as best they can. That is what the Americans call recitation. Although active ways are commonly used, a lot of things still have to be learnt by heart. A great deal of copying and repeating is necessary at that age. Lessons have to be said (or recited) regularly.

*/ to question s.o.

*/ to ask, to put a question to s.o.

*/ to answer [‘a:nsә] sth, to reply to sth

*/ to learn by heart [ha:t]

*/ to copy sth

*/ to repeat sth

*/ to say, to recite [ri’sait] a lesson

6:13**/ Young children are also taught spelling (i.e. how words are spelt). They are set dictations, and try to make as few mistakes as possible. They learn the rudiments of grammar, the nature of words, the use of tenses, etc.

*/ to spell a word

*/ spelling

*/ a dictation

*/ a mistake

*/ grammar

*/ a tense

6:14**/ Arithmetic is the science of counting with numbers. Numbers are composed of figures. We distinguish odd from even numbers, cardinal from ordinal numbers. Young children learn how to add up, subtract, multiply a divide numbers. Now pocket calculators save the effort of doing the four sums.

*/ to count

*/ a number

*/ a figure [‘figә]

*/ odd

*/ even [i:vn]

*/ cardinal

*/ ordinal

*/ to add up

*/ to subtract [sәb’trækt]

*/ to multiply [‘maltiplai]

*/ to divide [di’vaid]

*/ the four sums

*/ a pocket calculator

6:15**/ They have problems to solve, easy ones to begin with; but these may soon become hard (or difficult), even stiff. The result of yours sums or problem had better be right and not wrong if you do not want to get a bad mark!

*/ easy

*/ hard, difficult

*/ stiff, tough [taf]

*/ right

*/ wrong [roƞ]

6:16**/ In secondary schools the curriculum includes religious instruction, English and physical education throughout the school course. Other subjects usually taken by all pupils for at least part of it are mathematics, history, geography, science, art, music. Handicraft and domestic science (home economics, US) are taught as optional subjects.

*/ religious instruction

*/ English

*/ physical education

*/ mathematics, maths (sg.)

*/ history

*/ geography

*/ science [‘saiәns]

*/ art

*/ music

*/ handicraft

*/ domestic science, home economics (US)

6:17**/ French is the most commonly taught of modern languages. Some pupils are taught classical languages: Latin, and to a smaller extent, Greek. A degree of specialisation is usual in the upper forms. Pupils have a certain amount of homework to do at home; this work is called prep at boarding schools. They are set papers to do, and are given short tests (quizzes, US) and end-of-term tests to assess what progress they make.

*/ modern languages

*/ classical languages

*/ Latin [‘lætin]

*/ Greek

*/ the upper forms

*/ homework

*/ prep

*/ to set s.o. a paper

*/ a test

*/ a short test, a quiz (US)

6c*// pupils

6:18**/ Not all schoolchildren are equally gifted. Some have good memories and remember what they learn. Others do not and forget things as quickly as they learn them. Some are naturally clever (or intelligent), they understand things easily, they have a sharp mind, they are bright pupils. But even if a boy is proficient in, say, Latin, he is not necessarily good at physics or chemistry.

*/ gifted [‘giftid]

*/ memory

*/ to remember

*/ to forget

*/ clever, intelligent

*/ to understand

*/ sharp

*/ bright

*/ proficient in sth

*/ good at sth (kapitola 37)

6:19**/ Some children, unfortunately, are good for nothing. A child lacking in understanding is a fool (even a blockhead). He will give silly (or foolish), or ridiculous or even preposterous answers, he will talk nonsense. A pupil too stupid to learn is a dunce: he is generally a hopeless case! But there are special classes for backward (or retarded) children.

*/ a fool

*/ a blockhead

*/ silly, foolish

*/ ridiculous

*/ preposterous

*/ to talk nonsense

*/ stupid

*/ a dunce

*/ backward, retarded

6:20**/ A painstaking (or industrious) pupil is one who takes pains to learn and improve his knowledge. Teachers have no patience with lazy (or idle) children. They cannot stand laziness. Idleness is the root of all evil, so the saying goes. Many schoolchildren are apt to be thoughtless, absent-minded during lessons and careless in their work; and carelessness or lack of care is certainly not to be encouraged!

*/ painstaking, industrious

*/ to take pains

*/ lazy, idle [‘aidl]

*/ laziness

*/ idleness [‘aidlnәs]

*/ thoughtless

*/ absent-minded

*/ care

*/ careless

*/ carelessness

6d*// punishments and rewards

6:21**/ Pupils must keep quiet (or silent) and still. If a boy is restless or talkative, if he makes a noise, he will bring punishment upon himself. He may also be punished if he cheats in exams, is late, bullies another boy or plays truant. Unfortunately, truancy (or absenteeism) is on the rise.

*/ quiet [‘kwaiәt], silent [‘sailәnt]

*/ still

*/ restless

*/ to make a noise

*/ to punish

*/ to cheat

*/ to be late

*/ truancy, absenteeism

*/ to play truant

*/ to bully [‘buli]

6:22**/ Usual punishments are impositions and detentions (i.e. the boy is kept in at school). After several offences a boy will be reported to the Head: he will be severely lectured. Corporal punishments (caning and thrashing) are no longer in use in English schools. In Britain discipline is largely maintained by the pupils themselves, and enforced by senior pupils called prefects in Public Schools. In case of severe misconduct, a pupil may be expelled or a student sent down. Some students drop out of school, usually to start working straight away.

*/ an imposition

*/ a detention

*/ to be kept in

*/ to be reported to the Head

*/ to lecture

*/ to cane [kein]

*/ to thrash

*/ to maintain discipline

*/ a prefect [‘pri:fekt]

*/ to expel a pupil, send down a student

*/ to drop out of school

6:23**/ Marks are given for lessons and exercises. They range from bad to poor, tolerable, fair, good, finally excellent. 25 out of 50 is the average. At the end of each term a report is sent to each family about behaviour, proficiency and progress of the pupil. If a boy gets on well, he will be congratulated and rewarded. He will get prizes at school.

*/ a mark

*/ bad

*/ poor

*/ tolerable

*/ fair

*/ good

*/ excellent

*/ 25 out of 50

*/ the average

*/ a report

*/ behaviour

*/ proficiency

*/ progress (sg.)

*/ to get on in sth

*/ to congratulate s.o.

*/ to reward s.o.

*/ a prize

6e*// universities

6:24**/ If they meet requirements, young people can go to university or college at 18 or 19. Some may be clever enough to obtain (or win) a scholarship (or grant). Most would like to be educated at Oxford or Cambridge. There, students reside in one of the colleges. They attend lecturers and professors, and have individual periods (tutorials) with tutors.

*/ to go to university, to go to college

*/ to obtain, to win a scholarship, a grant

*/ to be educated at

*/ a student [stju:dnt]

*/ a college

*/ a lecture

*/ a lecturer

*/ a professor

*/ a tutor [‘tju:tә]

6:25**/ Undergraduates follow three-year courses – eg reading languages or law – before they can major in a subject, thereby getting their first degree, either a B.A. (Bachelor of Arts) or B.Sc. (Bachelor of Science). Not all students who take examinations (exams) get through. Some fail for lack of work. Arts students (don’t confuse with “art”: drawing, painting…) and science students, once they are graduated, may undertake research or further studies to obtain higher degrees – M.A. or M.Sc. (Master of Arts, or Science) or Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.). More and more students these days go to polytechnics. The aim of education in Britain is not so much to produce scholars (or learned men) as to develop character and prepare young people for life. More students now do research in scientific and technical subjects. R and D must be developed actively if we want to remain competitive.

*/ an undergraduate

*/ to read a subject

*/ to read languages

*/ to major in sth

*/ a degree

*/ B.A.; B.Sc.

*/ to take, to go in for, to sit an exam

*/ to pass, get through

*/ to fail, to flunk (fam.)

*/ arts

*/ art

*/ a graduate

*/ a Master’s degree

*/ a Doctor of Philosophy

*/ a Ph.D.

*/ a polytechnic

*/ a scholar

*/ learned [‘lœ:nid]

*/ to do research in, on

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