7*// clothes, dress

A7*// everyday life, clothes, dress

*// introduction

7:01**/ Man dresses – covers his body with clothes, wears clothes – in order to keep warm. In the morning you put on your clothes and take them off (or undress) at night. Sensible people are dressed according to the weather and temperature, wearing warmer garments in winter. At night, you undress before you have a shower and go to bed. When it gets hot, it is better to take off one or two articles of clothing you are dressed in, unless you are very sensitive to (the) cold.

*/ clothes [klәuδz]

*/ to dress

*/ to wear

*/ to put on a garment

*/ to undress

*/ to take off

*/ dressed, clad in (lit.)

*/ an article of clothing

*/ sensitive to the cold

*/ tailors and dressmakers (kapitola 27/7)

7:02**/ On Sundays people want to look elegant (or smart). They put on their best clothes (or their Sunday best). You can either have a suit made to measure (or to order) by a tailor (a custom suit, US) or buy one ready-made or ready-to-wear at an outfitter’s. In either case you try it on you try it on to make sure that it fits you well, that it is neither too loose nor too tight. If several fit you, choose the one that suits you best.

*/ elegant, smart

*/ to put on one’s best clothes, one’s Sunday best

*/ to have a suit [sju:t] made to measure, to order

*/ ready-to-wear

*/ to try on a suit

*/ to fit (s.o.)

*/ loose [lu:s]

*/ tight

*/ to suit s.o.

7:03**/ You will also pay attention to the quality of the material (or fabric). A good material is hard-wearing, it wears well and won’t stretch, whether light or heavy, coarse or fine. It must not shrink. If it happens to fade it will have to by dyed.

*/ a material, a fabric

*/ hard-wearing

*/ to wear well

*/ to stretch

*/ light

*/ heavy [‘hevi]

*/ coarse [ko:s]

*/ fine

*/ to shrink

*/ to fade [feid]

*/ to dye [dai]

7:04**/ Clothes, curtains, seat covers are made of cloth. Cloth is made from wool, cotton, linen, silk, or other materials such as velvet and nylon. Woollens make comfortable winter wear. Persian cats have soft woolly coats. Silken hair looks as fine and glossy as silk.

*/ cloth [kloθ]

*/ wool [wul]

*/ cotton [‘kotn]

*/ linen

*/ silk

*/ velvet

*/ nylon [‘nailon]

*/ woollens, woollies

*/ woolly [‘wuli]

*/ silken

7a*// men’s clothes

7:05**/ Men’s clothes include first underclothing (or underwear): a vest (undershirt, US), pants (or boxer shorts) or trunks (or briefs). Swimmers wear swimming trunks or swimsuits. Shirts are worn over a vest. In hot weather a man may work in his shirt-sleeves, or even stripped to the waist. Round the soft or stiff collar, you tie a tie or bow tie. Don’t forget to button the cuffs on the sleeves.

*/ underclothing, underwear

*/ a vest, an undershirt (US)

*/ pants (pl.), boxer shorts (pl.)

*/ trunks, briefs (pl.)

*/ swimming trunks (pl.)

*/ a swimsuit

*/ a shirt

*/ to be in one’s shirt-sleeves

*/ to be stripped to the waist

*/ a collar

*/ soft

*/ stiff

*/ to tie sth [tai]

*/ a tie

*/ a bow tie [‘bәutai]

*/ the sleeves

*/ the cuffs [kafs]

7:06**/ Trousers (pants, US) cover the legs and are kept in position by a belt or braces (suspenders, US). A man must have his trousers pressed regularly if he wants them to keep their crease. A farmer wears riding breeches, a camper prefers to wear shorts.

*/ (a pair of) trousers [‘trauzәz], pants (US)

*/ a belt

*/ braces, suspenders (US)

*/ to press sth

*/ the crease [kri:s]

*/ riding breeches [‘raidiƞ,britšiz]

*/ shorts (pl.)

7:07**/ Young men now favour leather jackets, roll-necked sweaters and pullovers. Neatly dressed businessmen are expected to wear three-piece suits which include waistcoat, jacket and trousers. At night clothes should be put away tidily, folded up or brushed and hung on coat-hangers.

*/ a leather jacket

*/ a polo neck (UK) / turtle neck (US) sweater [‘swetә]

*/ a pullover

*/ neatly

*/ a waistcoat, a vest (US)

*/ a jacket, a coat (US)

*/ to put away sth

*/ to fold (up) sth

*/ to brush a jacket

*/ a coat-hanger

7:08**/ Men’s jackets are fitted with pockets. You sometimes place a handkerchief in the breast pocket and always carry a wallet or a pocketbook in your pocket. Clothes are kept in position by buttons which are put through buttonholes. Inside jackets and coats, the lining conceals the seams.

*/ a pocket

*/ a handkerchief [‘hæƞkәtšif]

*/ a wallet [‘wolit]

*/ a pocketbook

*/ a button

*/ a buttonhole

*/ the lining [‘lainiƞ]

*/ a seam

7:09**/ In cold weather it is wise to put on a warm coat or overcoat, a scarf and gloves. A raincoat (made of water-proof cloth) is worn in rainy weather. A dress-suit is worn on formal occasions, or dinner jacket (tuxedo, US) or a tail-coat. You slip on pyjamas to go to bed at night, and a dressing-gown in the morning.

*/ a coat

*/ an overcoat

*/ a scarf

*/ gloves [glavz]

*/ a raincoat

*/ waterproof (adj.)

*/ a dress-suit [,dres’sju:t]

*/ a dinner jacket, a tuxedo (US)

*/ a tail-coat

*/ pyjamas (pl.)

*/ to slip on a dressing-gown, a bathrobe or a robe

7:10**/ Some men wear hats – a round bowler (derby, US) or a soft felt hat, a top hat on formal occasions, or a cap, or possibly a beret in France. A broad-brimmed hat is the best protection against the sun. To keep their balance, old people use walking sticks (canes, US). When going to work, the middle-class Englishman will carry a rolled-up umbrella, a portfolio or a briefcase.

*/ a bowler [‘bәulә], a derby [‘da:bi] (US)

*/ a felt hat

*/ a top hat

*/ a cap

*/ a beret [‘berei]

*/ a broad-brimmed hat

*/ a walking stick, a cane (US)

*/ an umbrella

*/ a portfolio

*/ a briefcase

7:11**/ At home, slippers are most convenient, but shoes or boots are more appropriate for going out. Shoes are made of leather. They must be regularly blacked (or polished; shined, US). Shoes for summer wear are made of canvas. A shoe is fastened with laces, or laced up. When you buy a new pair of shoes you must remember your size: for instance, size 3 in England corresponds to 36 in France. When shoes have been worn for some time, they must be mended. The cobbler will re-sole them (ie, put on a new sole) or put on a new heel. Sneakers and trainers are now all the rage with young people.

*/ slippers

*/ shoes

*/ boots, shoes (US)

*/ to black, to polish, to shine (US) shoes

*/ leather [‘leδә]

*/ canvas

*/ laces

*/ to lace up

*/ size

*/ to mend the sole

*/ to re-sole [,ri:’sәul]

*/ the heel

*/ sneakers, trainers

7:12**/ English school-children traditionally wear uniforms: a cap and blazer with the school’s coat of arms or badge for boys, a gym tunic for girls. Some people have to wear special clothes for protection. Thus, a nurse wears an overall, a mechanic wears overalls, your mother ties on her apron when she works in the house (a child wears a pinafore). Farm workers used to wear smocks and perhaps some still do. Fishermen and sailors wear oilskins. Many young people nowadays are dressed uniformly in blue denim jeans. Tracksuits are worn to go jogging; skiing outfits now come in bright, attractive colours.

*/ a blazer [‘bleizә]

*/ the coat of arms

*/ the badge

*/ a PE kit (physical education kit)

*/ an overall

*/ overalls (pl.), coveralls (US)

*/ an apron [‘eiprәn]

*/ a pinafore

*/ a smock (frock)

*/ an oilskin

*/ denim

*/ jeans (pl.)

*/ a tracksuit

*/ a skiing outfit

7:13**/ When not in uniform, soldiers are in plain clothes (or in mufti). For the coronation, the sovereign and the peers wear long fur-trimmed robes. When you go to a fancy dress ball you dress up. Actors wear costumes. Regional costumes are fast dying out in Europe.

*/ in plain clothes, in mufti [mafti]

*/ a robe

*/ a fancy dress ball

*/ to dress up

*/ a costume [‘kostju:m]

7b*// ladies’ wear

7:14**/ Bras, girdles, slips, panties make up women’s underwear. At night a woman wears a nightdress adorned or trimmed with lace and tied with a ribbon. When she dresses, she slips on her stockings or tights, then, she puts on a skirt and blouse, with a jumper or cardigan. Petticoats are no longer regularly worn.

*/ a bra, a brassiere

*/ a girdle

*/ a slip

*/ panties, briefs

*/ a nightdress

*/ to trim with lace

*/ a ribbon

*/ stockings

*/ (a pair of) tights, pantyhose (US)

*/ a skirt [skœ:t]

*/ a blouse [blauz]

*/ a jumper

*/ a petticoat

7:15**/ Or she may wear a dress or a suit. In summer she will put on a light frock. When she dresses up, she wears a low-necked evening gown with a scarf to match.

*/ a dress

*/ a suit [sju:t]

*/ a frock

*/ to dress up

*/ a gown

*/ low-necked

*/ a scarf to match

7:16**/ In winter she wears a coat, sometimes a fur coat or a fur jacket, in rainy weather a mackintosh with a hood. In her handbag she carries a handkerchief, her purse, a lipstick (as she may need to put on lipstick in an emergency) and a compact, for she must be ready to make up whenever she needs to. An elegant woman may spend a great deal of time at her hairdresser’s or at the beauty parlour, where she will be offered a great variety of cosmetics.

*/ a fur coat

*/ a mackintosh

*/ a hood [hud]

*/ a handbag

*/ a purse [pœ:s]

*/ a lipstick

*/ lipstick

*/ a compact

*/ to make up

*/ the hairdresser

*/ a beauty parlour

*/ cosmetics (pl.)

7:17**/ A fashionable woman follows the latest fashion very attentively. She buys fashion magazines to know what is fashionable. She never wears old-fashioned dresses. But if she wants to be dressed tastefully, she will avoid dowdy models, loud (or flashy) colours that look tasteless.

*/ fashion [‘fæšn]

*/ fashionable [‘fæšnәbl]

*/ old-fashioned

*/ tasteful

*/ dowdy [‘daudi]

*/ tasteless

*/ loud, flashy

7:18**/ If she can afford it, an elegant woman will wear jewels, for instance a gold brooch, a pearl necklace with a gold clasp, ear-rings, a bracelet and a ring. The latter can be set with a gem (or precious stone) such as a ruby, an emerald, a sapphire, or a diamond, which is about the most valuable of all. A pretty wrist-watch is also a much-valued ornament.

*/ jewels [‘džu:әlz]

*/ gold

*/ golden

*/ a brooch [brәutš]

*/ a pearl necklace [,pœ:l’neklәs]

*/ a clasp

*/ earrings

*/ a bracelet [‘breislit]

*/ a ring

*/ gems [džemz]

*/ (a) ruby [‘ru:bi]

*/ (an) emerald

*/ (a) sapphire [‘sæfaiә]

*/ (a) diamond [‘daiәmәnd]

*/ a wristwatch [‘ristwotš]

7c*// needlework, sewing

7:19**/ Not every man can sew a button on his jacket. He generally asks his wife to do it for him. She takes a needle, threads it with a thread, then she cuts it off the reel with her scissors. She pushes the needle through with a thimble. A sewing-machine, a tape-measure, pins, etc… are necessary articles in a household. Many girls nowadays knit their own pullovers, or their boyfriends’.

*/ to sew [sәu]

*/ a needle

*/ (a) thread [θred]

*/ to thread

*/ a reel

*/ scissors [‘sizәz]

*/ a thimble

*/ a sewing-machine

*/ a tape-measure [‘teip,mežә]

*/ a pin

*/ to knit [nit]

7:20**/ The housewife must mend all the family’s clothes, put a patch on a torn garment, darn socks and stockings, remove a spot of grease or a stain of blood, and sew the buttons that have come off back on. But worn-out shoes and clothes threadbare can only be thrown away.

*/ to mend

*/ a patch

*/ to darn

*/ a spot

*/ a stain [stein]

*/ to come off

*/ worn-out

*/ worn threadbare

7:21**/ When Mr. Smith goes out gardening, he puts on a soiled shirt, a shabby coat, a battered old hat. He does not care if his appearance is slovenly. A tramp wears ragged (or tattered) clothes. He is all in rags and tatters. Even a rag-and-bone man would not care to have them.

*/ soiled

*/ shabby

*/ battered [‘bætәd]

*/ slovenly [‘slavnli]

*/ rags, tatters

*/ ragged [‘rægid], tattered [‘tætәd]

*/ a rag-and-bone man

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