4*// food – the meals

A4*// everyday life, food – the meals

4a*// eating and drinking

4:01**/ Man eats when hungry and drinks when thirsty, or to quench his thirst. Unfortunately, too many countries are still plagued by hunger, or even by famine or starvation. After a good day’s work, one is bound to have an appetite when the time comes to sit down to table. To a starving man, sweet or savoury food will seem equally appetizing and will make his mouth water.

*/ to eat

*/ to be hungry

*/ to drink

*/ to quench one’s thirst [θœ:st]

*/ to be thirsty [θœ:sti]

*/ hunger

*/ famine, starvation

*/ to have an appetite [‘æpәtait]

*/ to sit down to table

*/ to be starving

*/ savoury [‘seivәri]

*/ to make one’s mouth water

4:02**/ Some children tend to be greedy. They will gulp down their food – swallow it without chewing it. Not surprisingly, they sometimes eat themselves sick. Others suck sweets (candy, US) or lick ice-cream all day long. Gourmets have a taste for refined food; they are fastidious about the fare, the cooking and dressing of the food they are served.

*/ greedy

*/ to gulp down food

*/ to swallow [‘swolәu]

*/ to chew [tšu:]

*/ to overeat

*/ to eat oneself sick

*/ to suck

*/ sweets, candy (US)

*/ to lick an ice-cream

*/ to have a taste for

*/ the fare [feә]

*/ fastidious, hard to please

*/ to cook

*/ to dress

4:03**/ People who can make do with a frugal meal or snack run no risk of surfeit. Canteen or hospital food, even when the meals are substantial, usually seems plain or tasteless. Food should always be wholesome; unwholesome food should never appear on the table.

*/ frugal

*/ a snack

*/ a surfeit [‘sœ:fit]

*/ substantial

*/ plain

*/ tasteless

*/ wholesome [‘hәulsәm]

*/ unwholesome [an’hәulsәm]

4:04**/ Before each meal the table must be laid. First the cloth is laid or individual mats are put directly on the table. The dinner set, i.e. the plates and dishes, is made of fine china or of plainer crockery.

*/ to lay the table

*/ a (table) cloth

*/ a mat

*/ the dinner set

*/ a plate

*/ a dish

*/ crockery

*/ china [tšainә]

4:05**/ The cutlery is brought on a tray or a trolley (forks, spoons and knives). Only rarely is soup ladled out of a soup-tureen by means of a ladle now in England. Salad is served in a salad bowl. There is a serviette (or napkin) for each person.

*/ cutlery (sg.)

*/ a tray

*/ a trolley

*/ a fork

*/ a spoon

*/ a knife [naif], knives [naivz] (pl.)

*/ to ladle out

*/ a ladle [leidl]

*/ soup

*/ a soup tureen

*/ a salad bowl [bәul]

*/ a serviette [,sœ:vi’et], a napkin

4:06**/ In England, there is a little plate to your left to prevent the breadcrumbs from falling on the cloth. Slices of bread can be cut from a new loaf (unless it is sliced already) or you can get fresh rolls. Stale bread can be toasted, and then it is still edible. I eat toast at breakfast – two or three pieces only.

*/ bread

*/ a crumb [kram]

*/ a slice

*/ a loaf, loaves (pl.)

*/ a roll

*/ new, fresh bread

*/ stale bread

*/ toasted bread

*/ edible, eatable

*/ toast

*/ a piece (of toast)

4b*// drinking

4:07**/ The English have numerous refreshing cups of tea or coffee (white or black) throughout the day. Coffee is poured from the coffee-pot, milk from the milk jug (pitcher, US). Coffee naturally tastes bitter. Sugar must be added (one or two lumps, or spoonfuls of granulated sugar out of the sugar-basin) to make it sweet.

*/ to refresh

*/ a cup of tea

*/ black coffee

*/ white coffee (UK)

*/ to pour [po: ͬ]

*/ the coffee-pot

*/ milk

*/ the milk-jug, the milk-pitcher (US)

*/ bitter

*/ sweet

*/ a lump of sugar [‘šugә]

*/ granulated sugar, caster sugar

*/ the sugar bowl, the sugar basin

4:08**/ Tea is the national beverage of the English. When the mistress of the house serves tea, she warms the teapot with hot water, then drops into it one teaspoonful of tea (by using a teaspoon) for each person and one for the pot, pours in boiling water and leaves the tea to stand (or brew) for 3 to 5 minutes. When the tea is ready, she pours milk or cream into each teacup, placed on a saucer, then the tea and finally ads sugar. She then hands round the cups and covers the tea-pot with a cosy. When the cups are empty, they are filled again from the pot.

*/ a beverage [bevridž]

*/ the teapot

*/ a teaspoonful

*/ a teaspoon

*/ to stand, to brew

*/ a teacup

*/ a saucer

*/ cream

*/ to hand round

*/ a tea-cosy [‘ti:kәuzi]

*/ empty

*/ to fill

4:09**/ For children, water or fruit-juice is the best thing to wash down a meal. It is poured out of a jug, or straight from the bottle or carton, into the glass. More and more English people now drink wine. Connoisseurs insist on vintage wines being served. Among the best-liked still wines: port, sherry, burgundy, claret. Champagne and other sparkling (or fizzy) wines are served in special glasses. Quality wines are served in bottles; a corkscrew is needed to pull out the cork, before you sample the delicious stuff… but beware of getting tipsy!

*/ fruit-juice [‘fru:t,džu:s]

*/ to wash down

*/ the (water) jug

*/ a glass

*/ wine

*/ a vintage wine

*/ still

*/ port

*/ sherry

*/ burgundy

*/ claret

*/ champagne [,šæm’pein]

*/ sparkling, fizzy

*/ a bottle

*/ the cork

*/ a corkscrew

*/ to sample

*/ tipsy

4:10**/ The more widely consumed alcoholic drinks are cider and especially beer – from light lager to stronger bitter and ale to dark stout. Brandy, gin, whisky are also popular spirits. When mixed with soda, Americans call such a drink a highball. In France, a small glass of liqueur is often served at the end of a good meal. Teetotallers will have nothing to do with alcohol and only accept soft drinks.

*/ alcoholic drinks

*/ cider [‘saidә]

*/ beer [biә]

*/ bitter, lager, ale [‘la:gә, eil]

*/ stout [staut]

*/ spirits, liquor [‘likә]

*/ brandy

*/ gin

*/ whisky, whiskey

*/ soda [‘sәudә]

*/ liqueur [li’kjuә]

*/ a teetotaller

*/ soft drinks

4c*// the meals

4:11**/ A traditional English breakfast is a full meal: it generally starts with a bowl of cornflakes (or cereals) served with cold milk and sugar. In winter some prefer a bowl of porridge, served hot with milk or cream. The main dish is generally bacon and eggs; a boiled egg, sausages, or some fish may be served as an alternative. The meal ends with buttered toast spread with jam or marmalade or occasionally honey. More and more people now favour continental breakfasts.

*/ breakfast [‘brekfәst]

*/ cereals [‘siәriәlz]

*/ cornflakes

*/ porridge

*/ bacon [‘beikn] and eggs

*/ boiled eggs

*/ hard-boiled eggs

*/ fried eggs

*/ poached eggs

*/ scrambled eggs

*/ a sausage [‘sosidž]

*/ to butter

*/ a piece of toast

*/ marmalade [‘ma:mәleid]

*/ honey [‘hani]

4:12**/ The midday meal, which comparatively few people take home, is called lunch (luncheon, lit.). It is generally a light one-course or a two-course meal, that is a dish of meat – steak, a pork or lamb chop, or veal or mutton cutlet or cold ham – with vegetables, and possibly a sweet.

*/ lunch, luncheon (lit.)

*/ a course [ko:s]

*/ meat

*/ beef

*/ pork

*/ lamb [læm]

*/ mutton

*/ veal

*/ steak [steik]

*/ a chop, a cutlet

*/ ham

4:13**/ When meat is roasted, the slices are cut off the joint, or carved. There are other ways of cooking meat: it can be boiled, grilled or stewed. Many working people however have to lunch on sandwiches. Frozen food-stuffs, ready-cooked dishes and takeaway food may prove very convenient to busy people.

*/ to roast

*/ a joint

*/ to carve

*/ to boil

*/ to grill

*/ to stew

*/ to lunch on sandwiches [‘sænwidžiz]

*/ frozen foodstuffs

*/ ready-cooked dishes

*/ takeaway food, takeout food (US)

4:14**/ Meat is most often bought raw. It may be tender or tough, fat or lean. Meat is rarely served underdone (rare, US) in England. Careful cooks serve it medium or well-done, never overdone. To season it, you can choose gravy, pickles, or a wide variety of bottled sauces. Salt, pepper and mustard are freely used as seasonings.

*/ raw [ro:]

*/ tender

*/ tough [taf]

*/ fat

*/ lean

*/ underdone, rare (US)

*/ medium [‘mi:diәm]

*/ well-done [dan]

*/ overdone

*/ to season

*/ gravy

*/ pickles

*/ a sauce

*/ salt [so:lt]

*/ pepper

*/ mustard [‘mastәd]

4:15**/ Meat is always served with vegetables, generally boiled potatoes, together with tomatoes or cauliflower and greens (cabbages, peas, etc.). Potatoes may also be served mashed or fried (they are then called chips, or French fries in America). Crisps are great favourites with children. Fish and chips is a very popular dish: it is served with vinegar. Oil is rarely used in England for dressing salad.

*/ vegetables, veg, veggies (US)

*/ a potato [pә’teitәu], potatoes (pl.)

*/ a tomato [tә’ma:tәu]

*/ cauliflower

*/ greens

*/ cabbage [‘kæbidž]

*/ peas

*/ mashed

*/ fried

*/ chips (UK), French fries (US)

*/ crisps

*/ vinegar

*/ oil

4:16**/ Dessert includes a sweet (e.g. rice pudding, custard, jelly) and cheese. Fruit is rarely eaten raw: it is wrapped in pastry or dough and baked into a pie. Preserved (or tinned; canned, US) fruit is bought in tins (cans, US). Jam is made of fruit boiled with sugar.

*/ dessert [di’zœ:t]

*/ a sweet

*/ rice [rais]

*/ a pudding

*/ custard [‘kastәd]

*/ jelly [‘dželi]

*/ cheese [tši:z]

*/ to bake

*/ pastry, dough [dәu]

*/ a pie [pai]

*/ preserved, tinned, canned (US)

*/ a tin, a can (US)

*/ jam [džæm]

4:17**/ Tea is a regular meal in most English houses. At tea-time, English people eat slices of bread and butter, jam, all kinds of cakes and pastries, such as tarts, pies, etc. Some of these cakes may be home-made, as are pancakes made of batter. Dinner is the main meal of the day for all those who have a continuous working day. There may be a late supper, consisting either of sandwiches and cocoa or simply bread, biscuits or crackers, and cheese.

*/ a cake

*/ pastries [‘peistriz]

*/ a tart, a pie

*/ a pancake

*/ batter

*/ dinner

*/ supper

*/ cocoa [‘kәukәu]

*/ a biscuit [‘biskit], a cooky (US)

*/ a cracker

4:18**/ A formal dinner party is rarely to be found outside the wealthy classes as there must be servants to wait at table and clear away the dinner things. At the end of such a dinner, toasts are proposed, and the guests drink (to) their host’s health. People who are big eaters, who treat themselves to rich meals, may have some digestive trouble. They may have to fast for a day or two. Treats may end badly. Yet, one should not forget the maxim “Eat, drink and be merry for tomorrow we die!”

*/ a dinner party

*/ to wait at table

*/ to clear away

*/ a toast

*/ to drink (to) someone’s health

*/ to treat s.o. to sth

*/ a treat

*/ a diet [‘daiәt]

*/ to fast

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