5*// games and pastimes

A5*// everyday life, games and pastimes

5a*// toys

5:01**/ Many games and children’s toys date back to ancient times. Greek boys used to play with hoops and spin tops. Dolls and balls have been known for a very long time. Generations of children have enjoyed flying kites. Marbles, skittles, and skipping ropes have also been very popular.

*/ a game

*/ to play

*/ a hoop

*/ a (spinning) top

*/ a doll

*/ a ball [bo:l]

*/ a kite [kait]

*/ marbles

*/ skittles

*/ a skipping rope

5:02**/ With their boxes of bricks, children enjoy building houses while the mechanically minded ones will put together all sorts of engines with their Meccano-sets. Toy soldiers, trains, cars and puppet-shows – e.g. Punch and Judy – always appeal to junior audiences. Outfits enable children to play at being their favourite heroes. Many modern toys are battery-operated and produce a variety of sounds and lights. The latest rage is model engines to be operated from distance by remote control. Electronic and video games are sure to keep the children busy on their free days.

*/ a box of bricks

*/ a Meccano-set

*/ toy soldiers

*/ a toy train

*/ a toy car

*/ a puppet-show

*/ Punch and Judy

*/ an outfit

*/ battery-operated toys

*/ model

*/ remote control

*/ electronic games

*/ video games

5:03**/ Among indoor games, playing cards has long been popular. There are four suits: clubs, diamonds, hearts and spades. The honours are the ace, the king, queen and jack (or knave). A trump(-card) is superior to all others.

*/ to play cards

*/ a suit [sju:t]

*/ clubs

*/ diamonds [‘daiәmәndz]

*/ hearts [ha:ts]

*/ spades

*/ the ace [eis]

*/ the king

*/ the queen

*/ the jack, knave [neiv]

*/ a trump(-card)

5:04**/ The dealer (i.e. the player who deals the cards) first shuffles the pack (deck, US) and has it cut by an opponent. Once the cards have been dealt, each player looks at his hand. Those who have taken the greater number of tricks win the game. Most losers lose games through bad luck, while quite a few winners win games by cheating.

*/ to deal

*/ the dealer

*/ to shuffle

*/ the pack, the deck (US)

*/ to cut

*/ the hand

*/ a trick

*/ to win

*/ to lose [lu:z]

*/ to cheat [tši:t]

*/ a loser

*/ a winner

5:05**/ The English are very fond of playing bridge or whist. Among other indoor games we can mention draughts (checkers, US), chess – played on a chessboard – dominoes and dice – the latter a mere game of chance. Billiards, on the other hand, is a typical game of skill. So is darts, mostly played in pubs.

*/ to play bridge

*/ draughts [dra:fts], checkers (US)

*/ chess

*/ a chessboard

*/ dominoes

*/ a die, dice (pl.)

*/ a game of chance

*/ billiards (sg.)

*/ a game of skill

*/ darts

5:06**/ There are other games in which children must guess a riddle or solve a puzzle (e.g. a crossword puzzle). They are also fond of playing (at) forfeits, as a party game.

*/ to guess [ges]

*/ a riddle

*/ to solve

*/ a puzzle

*/ crossword

*/ to play forfeits [‘fo:fits]

*/ a crossword puzzle

5b*// leisure

5:07**/ How does an Englishman fill his leisure (or his spare time)? Reading is of course a major occupation. The English read many newspapers and illustrated magazines. Reviews and weeklies deal with more serious matters. Comic strips (or comics) are very popular with children, while adults enjoy political cartoons with their humorous captions.

*/ leisure [‘ležә; ‘li:žә, US]

*/ spare time

*/ reading

*/ a newspaper

*/ a magazine

*/ a weekly

*/ comic strips, comics (US)

*/ a cartoon

*/ the caption

5:08**/ Millions of books are taken out from public libraries. The English read novels, which may be either dull or exciting, and thrillers (thrilling or not). Detective stories are great favourites. Some of them are bestsellers. Some of the best short stories ever written are English.

*/ to take out a book from a public library [‘laibrәri]

*/ to borrow sth from s.o.

*/ a novel

*/ dull

*/ exciting [ik’saitiƞ]

*/ thrilling

*/ a thriller

*/ a detective story

*/ a bestseller

*/ a short story

*/ a fairy tale

*/ literature (kapitola 50)

5:09**/ People who are musical (have an ear for music) play music or listen to concert broadcast on the wireless (or radio). Transistor radios have replaced old-fashioned radio-sets. You have to tune in to a station on a given wavelength. Another way of hearing one’s favourite music or songs is to play a record or long-playing record on one’s record-player or turntable. A portable cassette-player or cassette-radio, or a Walkman will enable you to enjoy your favourite music or radio programme wherever you go. Sophisticated hi-fi sets, complete with amplifier, loudspeakers, tuners, compact-disc player, turntable, cassette deck and tape recorder have turned many a suburban living room into concert halls! Tapes are an excellent way to keep recordings of what is worthwhile.

*/ to have an ear for music, to be musical

*/ a broadcast, a program (US)

*/ the wireless [‘waiәlәs], the radio [‘reidiәu]

*/ a (receiving) set

*/ a transistor radio

*/ to tune in to sth

*/ wavelength

*/ a record, a disc (US)

*/ to play a record

*/ a record player

*/ a turntable

*/ a long-playing record

*/ to record [ri’ko:d]

*/ portable

*/ a cassette player

*/ a cassette radio

*/ a Walkman

*/ hi-fi [‘haifai]

*/ an amplifier [‘æmplifaiә]

*/ loudspeakers [,laud’spi:kәz]

*/ a compact disc (disk, US), a CD

*/ a cassette deck

*/ a tape recorder

*/ a tape

*/ a recording

5c*// television

5:10**/ In the last few decades television (familiarly the T.V. or telly) has spread at a fantastic rate and television sets are to be found in all English houses. You can watch live broadcasts of the news, running commentaries of important events, or even plays; recorded broadcasts of the variety shows and serials are very popular. Soap operas are programmed during the daytime for housewives to watch. Quiz-shows with sometimes high prizes draw increasing audiences. Commentators – especially the anchor-men – and announcers presenting the prime-time news and programmes quickly become woll-known to T.V. viewers. The television craze started in America, where you can spend 24 hours a day in front of screen if you like! There, local channels as well as the three nationwide networks (A.B.C., C.B.S. and N.B.C.) financially depend on commercials. So, all programmes (films, shows…) are interrupted by advertisements every 15 minutes or so. They are very eager to get good ratings in order to attract more ads. Cable T.V. and satellite programmes enable one to watch broadcasts from nearly the whole world – provided one has the adequate aerial. British T.V. viewers have to pay a television licence. The money thus collected goes to the B.B.C.

*/ TV, the telly (fam.)

*/ a television set

*/ a live broadcast

*/ the news (sg.)

*/ a running commentary

*/ a play

*/ a recorded broadcast

*/ a variety show [vә’raieti]

*/ a serial [‘siәriәl]

*/ a soap-opera

*/ a quiz show [‘kwiz]

*/ a prize [praiz]

*/ a commentator

*/ an announcer [ә’naunsә]

*/ an anchor-man [‘æƞkәmæn]

*/ prime time [praim]

*/ a T.V. viewer

*/ a craze [kreiz]

*/ the screen

*/ a channel

*/ a network

*/ advertisements, ads, commercials (US)

*/ to have a high rating, get a good rating

*/ cable T.V. [keibl]

*/ a satellite [‘sætәlait]

*/ a video cassette recorder, a V.C.R.

*/ to (video) tape

5d*// hobbies

5:11**/ People have all sorts of hobbies. Crazes, fads, come and go. Other fashions endure. Photography has been with us for some time. Every youngster dreams of having his own camera with which to take holiday photos and snapshots. On the more sophisticated cameras, the standard lens can be replaced by zoom, wide-angle, or fish-eye lenses with which to take spectacular close-ups or distant photos that may rival a professional photographer’s. Dedicated amateurs will develop and print their own photos, and even enlarge and frame the better ones. With cine-cameras and video cameras, it is now possible to shoot one’s own films.

*/ a craze, a fad, a fashion

*/ photography

*/ a camera

*/ a photo, a photograph

*/ a snap(shot) (UK)

*/ a close-up

*/ a lens [lenz]

*/ a zoom-lens

*/ a wide-angle lens

*/ a fish-eye (lens)

*/ a photographer

*/ to develop

*/ to print

*/ to enlarge, to blow up

*/ to frame

*/ a cine-camera, a movie-camera (US)

*/ to shoot a film

*/ a video camera, a camcorder

5:12**/ Almost equally favoured are gardening, drawing and painting. Children and grown-ups like to collect the most various things, stamps, flowers, or photographs. Many keeps pets, (doggies, pussies). The building of model railways, ships and aeroplanes is very widespread. Amateur dramatics has many fans. Lastly the football pools (i.e. forecasting the results of football matches) are one of the chief occupations of a large proportion of the English population. So is bingo which is played in public in bingo halls. Those who are clever with their hands enjoy odd jobs about the house. D.I.Y. departments are there to supply the eager do-it-yourself, and a complete do-it-yourself kit is the ideal present to turn amateur D.I.Y. man into a professional handyman. Young people on the whole shun such stay-at-home activities and prefer more exciting entertainments like going pub-crawling and disco-dancing.

*/ gardening

*/ drawing

*/ painting

*/ to collect

*/ a pet

*/ a doggie

*/ a puss, a pussy

*/ model

*/ amateur dramatics

*/ the football pools

*/ bingo

*/ to do odd jobs

*/ the D.I.Y. department

*/ D.I.Y.

*/ a do-it-yourself kit

*/ a handyman

*/ to go pub-crawling

*/ a discotheque, a disco

5e*// initials, and what they stand for in Britain and the U.S.

*/ B.B.C. = British Broadcasting Corporation

*/ I.T.V. = Independent Television

*/ A.B.C. = American Broadcasting Company

*/ N.B.C. = National Broadcasting Company

*/ C.B.S. = Columbia Broadcasting System

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